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TT6.02 - Growth and Characterization of Tin Oxide Low Dimensional Structures and Tin Oxide- Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for Battery Applications 
April 8, 2015   8:15am - 8:30am

Lithium-ion batteries are widely used so far due to their high energy density, safety and long cycle lifetimes, however, current Li-ion battery electrodes are usually made from graphitic carbon which theoretical capacity is limited. SnO2 has attracted increasing attention as an alternative anode material [1] because of its higher Li storage capacity than carbonaceous electrodes. Different approaches are considered in order to solve problems such as the SnO2 volume expansion during charge/discharge processes, as the use of nanostructured SnO2 [2] and the synthesis of SnO2 composited with graphene [3]. In this work, different SnO2 based compounds have been fabricated and characterized, with special interest focused on the effects induced by Li and Cr doping. Therefore, rods, tubes, nanoparticles and graphene-based compounds have been fabricated following different approaches. Low dimensional SnO2 doped structures in forms of nanowires and microtubes have been grown at 800-1400 �C by a catalyst free evaporation-deposition method using either metallic Sn or SnO2 mixed with Cr2O3 and Li2CO3 as precursors. SnO2 nanoparticles doped with Cr and Li have been synthesized via a modified Pechini method which allows to reach high control in size and composition. SnO2-graphene oxide composites have been grown by a modified Hummer method. In this work the effect of Cr and Li on the structural and luminescent properties of rutile-type SnO2 low dimensional structures (nanoparticles, nanowires, microtubes, and composites) is studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The thermal parameters and the corresponding precursor determine the morphology of the as grown structures which dimensions vary from 5 nm to tens of microns width and up to hundred of microns length. In the case of SnO2, chromium is usually incorporated as substitutional Cr3+ in octahedral coordination, therefore anionic vacancies and/or cationic interstitials are generated during doping as well as a decrease in conductivity is also observed. However, the Cr3+ characteristic emission at 1.79 eV is not observed for all the samples and the luminescence of Cr doped SnO2 highly differs from that characteristic from undoped SnO2. The incorporation of Li in SnO2 and its influence on the luminescence properties has scarcely been studied in nano and microstructures. The codoping of Cr and Li causes an enhancement of the Cr emission meanwhile the conductivity of the samples is increased. [1] Y.D. Ko, J.G. Kang, J.G. Park, S. Lee, D.W. Kom, Nanotechnology, 20, 455701 (2009) [2] J.Y. Huang, L. Zhong, C.M. Wang, J.P. Sullivan, W. Xu, L.Q. Zhang, S.X. Mao, N.S. Hudak, X.H. Liu, A. Subramaniam, H. Fan, L. Qi, A. Kushima, J. Li. Science, 330, 1515 (2010) [3] J. Lin, Z. Peng, C. Xiang, G. Ruan, Z. Yan, D. Natelson, J.M. Tour, ACS Nano, 7, 6001 (2013)

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