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I2.02 - Spray Pyrolysis Synthesis of NiO-Si Yolk-Shell Structure and Their Application as Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries 
April 7, 2015   2:00pm - 2:15pm

Silicon, with a high specific capacity ~ 3,579 mAh/g, has been widely investigated as anode materials in lithium ion batteries [1]. There are few well know issues preventing the commercialization of silicon for this application, such as pulverization induced by volume expansion, low electrical conductivity, unstable solid electrolyte formation upon cycling. These issues have been addresses to some extent, although many of the proposed nanostructures that solve these problems are realized using slow and difficult to scale techniques. We propose a simple, scalable method to produce a metal-silicon nano-structure and we verify its applicability as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. NiO-Si core shell particles are synthesized utilizing a one-step spray pyrolysis method starting from a mixture of silicon nanoparticles and NiCl2.6H2O water based precursor. After coating, the core shell NiO-Si structure is annealed either at low temperature (1240 mAh/g, silicon basis) for 110 cycles at 0.5 C discharge rate. The amorphous carbon coating successfully prevents the silicon nanoparticles inside the shell from directly contacting the electrolyte during cycling. We verified this by testing the battery performance with and without fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive, finding little to no change in capacity and stability. In the case of silicon in direct contact with electrolyte, FEC additive helps forming thinner and more stable SEI on silicon surface improving the cycling performance [2]. In addition to its scalability, another advantage of this technique is its potential applicability to other material systems, such as NiO-Sn, NiO-SnO etc. [1] M. N. Obrovac and L. Christensen, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters 2004, 7, A93-A96. [2] C. C. Nguyen and B. L. Lucht, Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2014, 161(12), A1933-A1938.

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