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C12.04 - Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites: Property Tuning through Preparation Method Variation 
April 10, 2015   2:15pm - 2:30pm

The past five years have witnessed a tremendous surge in the popularity of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites among several research groups around the globe. The impulse for this trend can be largely attributed to CH3NH3PbI3, a compound semiconductor adopting a distorted perovskite crystal structure that was originally discovered in the late 70�s. CH3NH3PbI3 has been successfully used for the fabrication of inexpensive, high-efficiency solar cells when used as a light absorber and it has been shown to operate under various device architectures. CH3NH3PbI3 is a member of a wider class of halide perovskites, AMX3, where A is a univalent cation able to stabilize the perovskite structure, M is typically a group 14 bivalent metal ion and X is a halide anion. Other than CH3NH3PbI3, various line compounds and solid solutions within the AMX3 system have been demonstrated as efficient photosensitizers, thus highlighting the universally good semiconducting properties for this class of compounds. Despite the fact that the perovskite compounds are efficient photosensitizers and promise further improvements in the photovoltaic efficiency in the near future, the fundamental optical and electronic properties of the compounds themselves are not yet properly understood. In particular, we observe a significant variation in the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the compounds depending on whether the bulk material was isolated by means of a solution- or solid-state-based process. In the present work we study the properties of selected compounds from the APbI3 and ASnI3 systems as a function of the preparation method and we evaluate the resulting materials in terms of vacancy formation by employing a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction and theoretical DFT calculations. We further attempt to rationalize on the PL properties (PL emission vs. PL quenching) and electrical properties (resistivity, Hall effect) of these materials and correlate the estimated carrier density with the observed effects.

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