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LL9.01 - Past, Present and Future of p-Type Transparent Electrodes 
April 23, 2014   3:15pm - 3:45pm

The use of transparent electrodes in electronic devices that harvest and generate light, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photoelectrochemical cells, requires both positive (p-type) and negative (n-type) contacts, one of which has to be transparent. Historically, development of p-type transparent conductors has been difficult, thus majority of these technologies have to use n-type transparent electrodes. If a p-type transparent electrode could be designed, it would lead to both new engineering solutions and entirely new applications. In this talk, I will review the history and the recent advances in the field of p-type transparent electrodes and discuss the potential paths forward.The field of p-type transparent electrodes started with Ni- [1] and Cu-based oxides [2], which even in single crystal form [3] have moderate performance. Recent advances in oxides based on Ir [4], Rh [5], Co [6], Mn [7], Cr [8] and other transition metals [9] diversified the field. In parallel, sulfide [10], oxide-sulfide [11] and sulfide-fluoride [12] p-type transparent conductors have emerged as an alternative to widely studied oxides. Despite this significant recent progress, p-type electrodes still underperform compared to their n-type counterparts.A mainstream engineering strategy to address the performance limitation of p-type transparent electrodes is to use a thin p-type interfacial contact layer between n-type transparent electrode and active layer of an optoelectronic device. This strategy has been very successful for hole injection/transport layers in OLED [13] and OPV [14,15] technologies. Currently it proliferates into other areas, such as inorganic thin film solar cells [16], organic small-molecule photovoltaics [17], dye-sensitized cells and crystalline Si photovoltaics. An alternative scientific strategy to accelerate the progress in the field of p-type transparent electrodes is to first understand the origins of high electrical conduction in traditional n-type transparent electrodes such as In2O3 [18] and ZnO [19] and then use these new scientific insights to design completely new p-type transparent electrodes. Two unexpected design principles emerge from this direction: namely surface- [18] and non-equilibrium [19] enhancements of electrical conductivity. It remains to be seen if any of these ideas can be used to design better p-type transparent electrodes.[1] TSF 236, 27 (1993)[2] Nature 389, 939 (1997)[3] PRB 80, 165206 (2011)[4] APL 90, 021903 (2007)[5] APL 80, 1207 (2002)[6] PRB 85, 085204 (2012) [7] DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300807[8] APL 99, 111910 (2011)[9] AFM 21, 4493 (2011)[10] TSF 517, 2473 (2009)[11] APL 77, 2701 (2000)[12] TSF 518, 5494 (2010)][13] Org. Electr. 9, 890 (2008)[14] PNAS 105, 2783 (2007)[15] MRS Comm 1, 23 (2011)[16] APL 96, 162110 (2010)[17] JAP 107, 103713 (2010)[18] PRL 108, 016802 (2012)[19] APL, in press (2013)

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Application of In-situ X-ray Absorption, Emission and Powder Diffraction Studies in Nanomaterials Research - From the Design of an In-situ Experiment to Data Analysis