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LL6.02 - Aluminium Incorporation in Doped ZnO Films Obtained From Aqueous Solution-Gel Precursors 
April 23, 2014   8:30am - 8:45am

Al-doped ZnO (AZO) is an attractive candidate as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) due to its improved conductivity compared to ZnO, and its high transparency in the visible range. Here, an aqueous solution-gel route for the preparation of Al-doped Zn precursors is followed. Aqueous routes have the advantage of utilizing water as the solvent, which is environmentally friendly in comparison to organic solvents such as 2-methoxyethanol which is often used in sol-gel based approaches.. Spincoating of Zn2+ precursors doped with different percentages of Al3+followed by a suitable thermal treatmentresults in transparent (> 85% in visible range), conductive films of (Al-doped) ZnO.The films are dense and show preferential (002) c-axis orientation. 2 at.% of Al-doping yields the lowest resistivityof 2.88 10-3 Ω cm, with a mobility of 18.5 cm2/V.s and a carrier concentration of 1.17 1020 per cm3 after reductive anneal. To understand theconducting behavior, the position of the Al dopant in the ZnO lattice is studied by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The relative quantities of substitutional tetrahedral, interstitial tetrahedral, octahedral and pentahedral coordination of Al and the chemical analysis of hydrogen in the films allows to explain the conductivity trends in the reductively treated Al-doped ZnO films. These new insights provide a basis for understanding conductivity from the level of the crystal lattice onwards.

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