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Marlene Kramer, PhD, RN, FAAN

Marlene Kramer received her BSN from St. Louis University in 1953, her MSN from Case-Western Reserve University (1958), and her PhD in education and sociology from Stanford University (1966). She has held a variety of positions in Nursing Service and has been a member of the faculty of 3 Schools of Nursing, University of California in San Francisco, University of Connecticut, and University of Nevada, Reno where she was the first occupant of the Orvis Chair in Nursing Research.

In the late 1960's while Dean of the Undergraduate program at the University of California, San Francisco, Dr. Kramer commenced a Research Program to identify the process, facilitators and deterrents to effective transition of students to the work world. This study led to the publication in 1974 of her seminal work Reality Shock: Why Nurses Leave Nursing. From 1974-1979, Marlene focused on avenues to alleviate Reality Shock in acute care hospitals, and conducted a series of studies to test Bicultural and Conflict Resolution training with new graduate nurses and their head nurses to help ease the school to work transition.     [ Click for More ]